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In-Field Test Methods and Reference Standard for High Efficiency Particulate Air Filtration (PHEAF) Equipment

REFERENCE STANDARDS FOR THE EVALUATION OF

PORTABLE HEPA-FILTERED EQUIPMENT

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1.  HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEPA FILTERS	                        

A.  German Gas Masks	                                                         1
B.  U.S. Nuclear Weapons Manufacturing	                                         2
C.  U.S. Nuclear Energy Reactors and the ?Space Race?	                         2
D.  PHEAF Equipment	                                                         3

CHAPTER 2.  THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOP AEROSOL TEST METHOD	

A. Tyndall Scattering	                                                         4
B. Counting Particles with Light Microscopy	                                 4
C. The Methylene Blue Stain-Intensity Procedure 	                         5
D. Initial Theories on the ?Most Penetrating Particle Size?	                 5
E. LaMer and Sinclair?s Development of the DOP Aerosol Test Method	         6
F. U.S. Mil Standard 282	                                                 7
G. Test Methods for the Nuclear Weapons and Power Industries	                 7
H. Test Methods for the Cleanroom Industries	                                 8

CHAPTER 3.  THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LASER PARTICLE COUNTER TEST METHOD

A. The Integrating Nephelometer 	                                        11
B. Development of Low-Cost, Small Laser Particle Counters	                11
C. Research in the Nuclear Weapons and Power Industries	                        12

CHAPTER 4.  THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
                   CONDENSATION PARTICLE COUNTER TEST METHOD	               

A. What are Condensation Particle Counters?	                                15
B. The Development of Condensation Particle Counters	                        15
C. ULPA Filter Testing and Nanotechnology	                                16
D. ULPA Test Methods for the Nuclear Weapons and Power Industries	        17	
E. ULPA Test Methods for the Cleanroom Industries	                        17
	
CHAPTER 5.  STANDARDS REQUIRING THE TESTING AND USE OF HEPA-FILTERED EQUIPMENT 
INCLUDING PORTABLE AFDS AND VACUUM CLEANERS	                               

A. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Requirements for Testing and 
     Certifying HEPA Air Filtration Systems	                                18
B.  U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Requirements for Testing and 
      Certifying HEPA Vacuum Cleaners and Portable Air-handling Equipment	20
C.  Certification and Test Standards for HEPA-Filtered Commercial Vacuum	
Cleaners by the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST)	21
D.  Certification and Test Standards for HEPA-Filtered Vacuum Cleaners in	
      the European Union (EU)	                                                22
E.  The National Air Filter Association (NAFA) Recommendation for Testing	
      HEPA Filters		                                                22
F.  The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Asbestos Abatement 
     Specifications	                                                        23
G. Asbestos Abatement Specifications Used in Northern California	        23	
H. British Columbia, Canada - Occupational Health & Safety Regulation, Part 6	23
I.  The Clean Trust (formerly the Institute for Inspection, Cleaning and 
     Restoration Certification) IICRC S520 Mold Remediation Standard	        26
J.  State Regulatory Requirements for the Monitoring of the Exhaust 
           Discharge of HEPA-Filtered Air Filtration Devices on K-12 School 
           Asbestos Abatement Projects 	                                        27
K. Regulatory Requirements for the Use of Certified HEPA Vacuum 
           Cleaners in the European Union (EU)	                                27
L. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) - 1990 
     Letter of Interpretation 	                                                28

CHAPTER 6.  HOW HEPA / ULPA FILTERS WORK AND SMALL PARTICLE PHYSICS	        30

A. The Initial Theory of 0.3 Micron Size Particles Being the Most Penetrating
     Particle Size (MPPS)	                                                30
B. Empirical Evidence that the Theory of 0.3 Micron Size Particles Being the     
     Most Penetrating Particle Size was Inaccurate	                        31
C. Small Particle Physics and Particle Filtering Principles	                31
D. Respirable Particulates	                                                34
E. Is Isokinetic Sampling an Issue?	                                        36
F. Carbon Particles from Motor Brushes are Not the Source of Measured 
    Particles Exhausted from HEPA Filters	                                41

CHAPTER 7.  PORTABLE HEPA-FILTERED EQUIPMENT TESTING AND EVALUATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

A. U.S. NIOSH Particulate Respirator Rating System	                        45
B. The European Union Filtering Face Piece Rating System	                47
C. The European Union Portable HEPA Vacuum Cleaner Rating Standards	        48
D. The Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology HEPA Filter 
      Classes		                                                        49
E. The European Union HEPA Filter Classes EN 1822 (EN 779)	                50
F. The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)	                                51
G. Summary of Filter Efficiency Standards for HEPA Filters	                52
H. Summary of HEPA / ULPA Filter Efficiency Standards For Ultrafine / Nano- 
     particles  		                                                52
I. Recommended PHEAF Ranking Classes for In-Field Testing and 
     Evaluation of HEPA-Filtered Equipment	                                53
J. Recommended PHEAF Ranking Classes for In-Field Testing and 
    Evaluation of ULPA-Filtered Equipment	                                57

CHAPTER 8.  WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO TEST PHEAF EQUIPMENT	                        58

A.  A Brief Summary of the Sources of Leakage Through a PHEAF Device	        58
B.  Research Showing Actual Particle Leakage from PHEAF Equipment	        59
1. Testing by Delano Leonard, MS, CIH	                                        59
2. Testing by Greg Weatherman, Aerobiological Solutions, Inc.	                62
3. Testing by Walsh, Baxter and Brandys	                                        62
C.  Odor Problems from HEPA Filters Used for Mold Remediation and  
      Chemical Clean Ups	                                                82
D.  Proper Maintenance and Testing of PHEAF Equipment	                        83
1.  Cleanroom Maintenance Guidelines for Fixed HEPA Systems	                83
2.  Maintenance Guidelines for PHEAF Equipment	                                84
3.  Use of the Proper Replacement Filters	                                84
4.  PHEAF Equipment Used for Microbial Remediation	                        85
5.  PHEAF Equipment Used for Lead and Asbestos Abatement	                85
E.  Why Hasn?t Periodic Testing of Portable HEPA-Filtered Equipment 
      Been Required in the US?	                                                86
    1.  Lack of Knowledge, Lack of Regulation or Lack of Enforcement?	        86
    2.  US ?Consensus Standards? Verses Expert Standards in the EU and 
       Other Countries	                                                        87

CHAPTER 9.  REVIEW OF THREE METHODS FOR IN-FIELD TESTING OF HEPA/ULPA-FILTERED 
             EQUIPMENT USING LIGHT-SENSING TECHNOLOGY	
 
A. The Photometry Aerosol Challenge Method (Formerly the DOP Test Method)	90
   1. The Use of DOP Aerosol as a Challenge Agent	                        90
   2. The Use of Non-DOP Aerosol Challenge Agents	                        91
   3. The Laskin Nozzle	                                                        92
   4. Complications in Aerosol Testing of HEPA Filters	                        93
   5. Recommended In-Field Aerosol Method for Testing and Evaluation 
    of  PHEAF Equipment (Total Penetration Testing)	                        97
    6. Aerosol Testing of HEPA Vacuum Cleaners	                                98
    7.  Simplified DOE Procedure	                                        99
    8. PHEAF? Device Aerosol Testing Data Collection Form	               101
B. The Laser Particle Counter Method	                                       104
   1. How Laser Particle Counters Work	                                       104
   2. Recommended LPC Settings	                                               107
   3. Particle Counting Efficiency	                                       110
   4. Minimum Sampling Time and Number of Samples	                       110
   5. Statistical Analysis of Particle Counter Data 	                       112
   6. Calibration of Laser Particle Counters	                               113
   7. Comparison of Laser Particle Counters	                               114
   8. Recommended Method for In-Field Testing and Evaluation of 
    PHEAF Equipment Using a Laser Particle Counter 	                       116 
   9. PHEAF Device Laser Particle Counter In-Field Test Method Data 	       118
    Collection Form
  10.  Particle Counting Size Range Options	                               118
  11. Potential Interferences and Bias in the LPC Test Method	               118
C. The Condensation Particle Counter Method	                               122
   1. How Condensation Particle Counters Work	                               122
   2. Background ?Natural? Levels of Ultrafine Particles	               123
   3. The One Second or So Counting Interval	                               123
   4. Minimum Sampling Time and Number of Samples	                       123
   5. Recommended In-Field Condensation Particle Counter Method for   
    Testing and Evaluation of Portable Ultrafine/Nanoparticle-Filtering   
     Equipment 		                                                       123
   6. PHEAF? Device Condensation Particle Counter Testing Data 
    Collection Form	                                                       124
D. Comparison of Laser Particle Counting to Light Scattering 
     Measurement Techniques for HEPA-Filtered Device Testing 
     and Evaluation	                                                       127
E. Is Laser Particle Counter Testing of a HEPA Filter Superior to the 
     Aerosol Testing Method?	                                               129


CHAPTER 10. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF IN-FIELD EFFECTIVENESS 
                  TESTING DATA OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PHEAF EQUIPMENT	

A. Large Size HEPA-Filtered Air Filtration Devices	                       132
B. Medium Size HEPA-Filtered Air Filtration Devices	                       133
C. Large HEPA Vacuums	                                                       133
D. Small HEPA Vacuums	                                                       134
E. Canister HEPA Vacuums	                                               134
F. Backpack HEPA Vacuums	                                               134
G. Glovebag HEPA Vacuum	                                                       135
H. Conclusion	                                                               136
               Copyright  OEHCS 2011